IT Fundamentals Pro Objectives

TestOut IT Fundamentals Pro Exam Objectives

Computing Basics - Digital Data

  • Recall significant developments in the history of modern computing.
  • Identify uses of computers in today's world.
  • Identify the basic functions of computers.
  • Recommend computing devices based on user requirements.
  • Describe ethical considerations related to evolving forms of technology.
  • Describe the binary number system used by computers to process data.
  • Define bits and bytes.
  • Explain how physical signals are translated into digital information.
  • Describe the most common units of measurement used for storage, throughput, and processing speed.
  • Describe how audio and video are stored digitally.
  • Distinguish between raster and vector images.
  • Select the best format for digital images.
  • Describe how RGB values determine pixel color.
  • Compare common image file types.
  • Describe the difference between lossless and lossy compression algorithms.

Computing Basics - IT Careers

  • Identify the proper sequence of steps to follow in the troubleshooting methodology.
  • Describe various careers in computer networking.
  • Describe various careers in working with databases.
  • Describe several careers in computer science.
  • Describe common careers in IT security.
  • Conduct online research on a career that interests you in information technology.

Hardware - Internal Components

  • Describe the most common internal components of a typical computer system, including processor, RAM, motherboard, power supply, GPU, NIC, and cooling system.
  • Distinguish between the two main types of consumer-level CPUs.
  • Set up a desktop computer system, including peripherals, power cables, and networking cable.

Hardware - Input & Output

  • Identify common peripheral devices by sight.
  • Identify common ports and connectors by sight.
  • Connect cables and peripherals to a computer system.
  • Select appropriate cables and hardware devices for particular scenarios.
  • Troubleshoot common problems when installing external devices to a computer system.
  • Identify the proper cable to connect a computer to an Ethernet port.

Hardware - Storage

  • Compare and contrast the features of different external storage devices, including hard disk drives, optical drives, flash storage, and solid state drives.

Application Software

  • Identify application software that increases personal productivity.
  • Identify application software that facilitates collaboration.
  • Identify some common business application software.
  • Run Windows applications.
  • Pin applications to the Start Menu and the taskbar.
  • Unpin applications from the Start Menu and the taskbar.
  • Create application shortcuts on the Windows desktop.


  • Open and print a document from Microsoft Word.
  • Describe Windows printing features.
  • Connect to a shared printer.
  • Configure the default printer.
  • Share a local printer with other users.

Application Delivery

  • Compare and contrast different methods of delivering applications to users.
  • Describe various ways software applications can be designed for greater scalability and maintenance.
  • Compare and contrast different software licensing models.
  • Use various methods to install and use software applications.
  • Install software patches and updates.
  • Configure a Windows system for automatic updates.

Operating Systems - System Software

  • Identify and describe different types of system software.
  • Identify common operating systems.
  • Identify and describe components of the Windows 10 operating system.
  • Change display settings in Windows.
  • Use the Settings app to view system information.
  • Configure a screen saver through the Settings app.
  • Recognize and use utility software.
  • Use Windows Device Manager to update drivers.
  • Use Windows Task Manager to prevent applications from running at system startup.

Operating Systems - File Management

  • Describe common file system features, including compression, encryption, permissions, journaling, and file naming rules.
  • Compare and contrast common file systems, such as NTFS, FAT32, HFS, and Ext4.
  • Create folders in the Windows file system.
  • Copy, rename, and delete files in Windows.
  • Share a Windows folder with other users and grant them specific access to files within the folder.
  • Use the Windows Recycle Bin.

Networking - Internet Technologies

  • Define the Internet and the World Wide Web.
  • Describe the essential components of the Web, including websites, URLs, hyperlinks, web browsers, and search engines.
  • Identify technologies that use the Internet, including the Web, email, instant messaging, VoIP, and the Internet of Things.
  • Identify common web applications, including Webmail, Google Docs, Facebook, and YouTube.
  • Define and describe the uses of cloud computing.
  • Define social media and describe its uses.
  • Recognize the risks and responsibilities of using social media.
  • Describe the differences between downloading, live streaming, and on-demand streaming.
  • Copy files from the local Windows file system to OneDrive.
  • Use a web browser to access the World Wide Web.
  • Use browser features such as private browsing, bookmarks, and downloading files.
  • Use a search engine to find and evaluate web content.
  • Identify reliable academic sources online.
  • Distinguish between primary, secondary, and tertiary sources.
  • Describe key browser and website features, including plug-ins, client-side scripting, certificates, caching, and proxy settings.
  • Configure browser privacy and security features such as pop-up blockers, location tracking, and cookies.
  • Troubleshoot common browser problems.

Networking - Network Configuration

  • Define some advantages of computer networking.
  • Describe the relationship between ISPs and the Internet.
  • Explain the role of clients and servers on a network.
  • Compare and contrast different Internet Service options.
  • Use a cable modem to connect a small home office network to the Internet.
  • Use an Ethernet cable to connect a workstation to a local area network.
  • Describe basic Internet protocols.
  • Compare and contrast wireless network standards.
  • Describe how networking devices transmit data to the right location on a network.
  • Connect to a public WiFi network.
  • Connect to a secure wireless network.

Databases - Database Types

  • Describe the purposes of a relational database.
  • Define basic relational database terminology, including fields, records, primary keys, foreign keys, and one-to-many relationships.
  • Describe the basic functions of a non-relational database.
  • Describe the purpose of a database management system.
  • Use Microsoft Access to explore database objects and create table relationships.

Databases - Database Access

  • Explain what SQL is and interpret a basic SQL query.
  • Compare and contrast different methods of accessing data from a database.
  • Define the term Big Data and describe its related challenges and opportunities.
  • Use Microsoft Access to perform basic queries on a database.

Programming - Programming Concepts

  • Explain what computer programming is and why it is useful.
  • Describe the difference between developing computer programs and using software packages.
  • Describe the purpose of programming logic, including branching and looping.
  • Analyze and understand pseudocode and programming logic flowcharts.

Programming - Programming Languages

  • Compare and contrast different programming language categories.
  • Identify and understand the purposes of HTML, CSS, and JavaScript in a web browser.
  • Compare and contrast fundamental data types used in computer programming.
  • Describe the purpose of programming constructs such as variables, arrays, and functions.
  • Explain the advantages of Object-Oriented Programming.

Security - Security Threats

  • Explain how much privacy you can expect when using the Internet for social networking, file sharing, and financial transactions.
  • Explain how much privacy you can expect when using computers at work.
  • Describe the most common threats to data confidentiality.
  • Describe the most common threats to data integrity.
  • Describe the most common threats to data availability.
  • Identify common social engineering techniques used by hackers to gain access to online data.
  • Evaluate email messages to determine if they represent a possible social engineering attack.

Security - Device Security

  • Describe the most common authentication types and when to use them.
  • Explain the purpose of multifactor authentication.
  • Describe various models for creating and maintaining access control lists.
  • Explain why access control frameworks need to keep track of who gains access to the system.
  • Describe the basics of data encryption.
  • Describe the most important safeguards in protecting yourself from Internet security risks.
  • Describe best practices for using secure passwords.
  • Define different kinds of malware and know how to avoid them.
  • Safely spend money on the Internet.
  • Configure Windows Defender to protect your home computer from malware.
  • Configure Windows Firewall for different networks.

Security - Corporate Data Security

  • Define data, network, and power redundancy and explain how they contribute to fault tolerance.
  • Explain why it's important to back up data files.
  • Describe backup procedures for different types of data.
  • Explain the purpose of business continuity plans.
  • Describe the common components of a disaster recovery plan.
  • Configure Windows backup settings.

Information Systems - Systems Design

  • Describe the components of an information system and how they fit together.
  • Compare and contrast different types of information systems, including transaction processing, management information systems, and expert systems.
  • Identify the traditional stages of the System Development Life Cycle (SDLC).
  • Describe modern alternatives to a linear process of systems analysis and design.
  • Describe the role of project management in the design and implementation of information systems.

Information Systems - Data Analysis

  • Describe the relationship between data and information assets.
  • Identify the basic steps in the data analytics process.

Information Systems - Intellectual Property

  • Describe the implications of copyright and intellectual property laws for Internet use.
  • Compare and contrast classification schemes for handling confidential information.

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